Have you ever heard the term DNA test? Perhaps you've heard it from the environment around you, in the movie, from celebrity gossip news or on television. DNA or AND to this day is the most accurate way to determine the identity and the identity of a person. What exactly is DNA? What is checked when performing a DNA test? How this test can identify a person?
DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, or in Indonesian often called AND which is short for deoxyribonucleic acid. AND this is the DNA or genetic material contained within the body of every person who inherited from parents. DNA found in cell nuclei in the structure of chromosomes and the mitochondria.
Its function as a blueprint that serves as a conduit of code for every human being such as to hair color, eye shape, face shape, skin color, and others. The introduction of the structure of DNA was introduced by Francis Crick, a British scientist James Watson and from the United States in 1953.
For simplicity we understand what kind of DNA, you try to think of a sentence. Sentence is composed of several words. And every word is formed from some alphabet. It can be said, the alphabet is a basic element of many languages. A similar principle can be applied to DNA. At the molecular level, "alphabet" of DNA provided by the principal. The amazing thing is that the "alphabet" consists of only four letters, A, C, G, and T, which is a symbol of the chemical bases adenine, cytosine (cytosine), guanine, and thymine. These compounds form an exclusive bond, in which adenine is always paired with thymine and guanine always pairs with cytosine.
The shape of DNA is like a double spiral which together with the meeting. DNA consists of four base pairs A, C, G, and T which is a nitrogen-containing chemical components. The sequence of bases in DNA molecules is what determines the genetic information contained in it. In short, this sequence determines almost everything about you, from hair color, skin color, to the shape of your nose.
Every human being has 23 pairs of chromosomes consisting of 22 pairs of somatic chromosomes and 1 pair of chromosomes determine gender. Someone with XX chromosomes determine the sex of female and XY for someone who is male sex. Chromosome is obtained from parents, half from the mother and half from the father.
DNA tests on mitochondrial DNA known as mitochondrial DNA obtained from maternal whole. Mitochondrial DNA tests with mengembil one can identify whether someone has a family relationship with the family of the mother or maternal family relationships. You do this by comparing the mitochondrial DNA that has a biological mother, grandmother or sister of the mother.
Because a mother fully lowered mitochondrial DNA to their children, what about fathers? A father will inherit a Y chromosome to his son (because the Y chromosome belongs only male XY sex chromosomes). While girls do not have a Y chromosome (XX female sex chromosome).
To prove the family's relationship with his father's side can be done by comparing the Y chromosomes of a child with his biological father or the paternal siblings. Because the Y chromosome examination only for boys, then how to do DNA tests on a girl?
DNA tests done by taking the DNA of somatic chromosomes. Ties of DNA in the somatic almost the same in every person because it serves to form and function of organs. Sequence errors can lead to disorders in humans are concerned. But at the core of these cells also contained an area known as the area of STR (short tandem repeats). This area does not give the code to do something.
STR is what is unique because it is different for each person. The difference lies in the sequence of base pairs generated and the sequence repetition STR. AGACC sequence will be different with someone who has a string AGACT. So is the sequence repetition that is unique. STR pattern is inherited from parents.
How do DNA test? In this example a DNA test to prove whether a child really is the biological child of a husband and wife. How to check the DNA tests done by taking a STR of the child. Furthermore, the laboratory will analyze the sequence string STR the same whether the order with someone who made a pattern of a child. The order is not the only one because the examination is continued by looking at the number of chromosomes.
For example, a child's examination found that the chromosome number 3 has a sequence with a repetition AGACT 2 times. When the father or mother who claimed his biological parents also have a repetition of the same on the same chromosome number, it can be concluded between two people that have family ties.
A person can be said to have a blood relationship if you have the same 16 STR kelurga siblings. When the order and repetition of the same, then the two people who checked a sibling bond or a close blood relations. This amount is quite small compared to the overall bonding spiral in our bodies, amounting to billions.
DNA tests carried out by taking a little part of your body to compare with others. The part that can be taken to be checked is the hair, saliva, urine, vaginal fluid, semen, blood and other body tissues. These samples will not change throughout his life. The use of alcohol, tobacco or drugs will not change the structure of DNA. The results of DNA tests will be run from a new patient can be seen 2-4 weeks. Cost for DNA testing is currently around 7 to 8 million dollars.
Benefits of DNA Testing DNA testing has now become a trend to prove the link one's blood relations. Given the many infidelities and casual sex, has resulted in many children who questioned the origin of their parents. Therefore, many couples do DNA tests to prove the origin of children born to them.
Even in some countries, many DNA testing clinics. Many also are using DNA tests as suspicious of her partner. Some people give up personal items belonging partner to the clinic to be tested whether their partners connect with others who are not spouses.
In the police, DNA testing is also used for forensic tests. DNA testing is the most accurate evidence to test a person's identification than fingerprints. With DNA testing, police can provide authentic evidence of bodies that have been destroyed, provided that tissue samples can be taken on these corpses.
In addition to detecting family relationships, DNA testing also serves to detect a particular disease until the disease is complex. With DNA testing can be known causes of a disease that is especially hereditary.
Advances in technology have made more new things to learn. DNA testing is currently the most accurate identification and reliable. Information about DNA testing above may help you know closer to the process.